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Below is a brief glossary of terms that are frequently used by the Open Scholarship Policy Observatory. This list is by no means complete. For further information on on the terms below, we recommend:

Open scholarship: “Open scholarship […] focuses on the wide and broad dissemination of scholarship by a variety of interconnected means (e.g., technology, licensing) aiming to broaden knowledge and reduce barriers to access to knowledge and information.” (Veletsianos, 16)

Open access (OA): “Barrier-free access to online works and other resources. OA literature is digital, online, free of charge (gratis OA), and free of needless copyright and licensing restrictions (libre OA). The term was introduced by the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002.” (Suber, 175)

Green OA: “OA through repositories” (Suber, 175)

Gold OA: “OA through journals, regardless of the journal’s business model. Also see Green OA.” (Suber, 175)

Open data: “Open data is data that can be freely used, re-used and redistributed by anyone – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike.” (Dietrich, n.p.)

Open science: “Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods.” (FOSTER, n.p.)

Works Cited

Dietrich, Daniel, et al. Open Data Handbook. Open Knowledge International. http://opendatahandbook.org/guide/en/what-is-open-data/

“Open Science Definition.” FOSTER Open Science. https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/foster-taxonomy/open-science-definition

Suber, Peter. 2012. Open Access. MIT Press.https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/9780262517638_Open_Access_PDF_Version.pdf

Veletsianos, George. 2016. Social Media in Academia. Routledge.


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